Harvard researchers have unveiled a groundbreaking AI tool called CHARM that can decode a brain tumor’s DNA in real-time during surgery. This tool has the potential to revolutionize neurosurgery by providing critical information that can greatly impact patient outcomes. The current diagnostic approach in neurosurgery involves freezing brain tissue and examining it under a microscope, but this method has limitations. CHARM overcomes these limitations by swiftly determining a tumor’s molecular identity, allowing neurosurgeons to make informed decisions about tissue removal. One of the significant advantages of CHARM is its ability to administer on-the-spot treatment with drug-coated wafers directly into the brain during surgery. CHARM was trained using a vast dataset and demonstrated remarkable accuracy in distinguishing tumors with specific mutations. It also captures visual characteristics of the surrounding tissue, enabling the identification of aggressive gliomas. CHARM’s potential extends beyond gliomas and can be retrained to identify other subtypes of brain cancer and even cancers in other organs. However, before it can be used clinically, it must undergo rigorous validation testing and obtain regulatory clearance. This AI tool has the potential to enhance patient outcomes and optimize treatment strategies for brain tumor patients. Overall, CHARM represents a monumental leap forward in neurosurgery and offers hope to individuals battling brain tumors and other cancers.