KOSMOS-2.5: Bridging the Gap Between Text and Visual Content with Multimodal Language Models

The Rise of Multimodal Large Language Models

Large language models (LLMs) have become popular in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), but they have struggled with understanding visual content. To bridge this gap, multimodal large language models (MLLMs) have emerged. These models combine visual and textual information in a single Transformer-based model, allowing them to learn and generate content from both modalities, which is a significant advancement in AI capabilities.

Introducing KOSMOS-2.5: A Multimodal Model

KOSMOS-2.5 is a multimodal model designed to handle two closely related transcription tasks. The first task involves generating text blocks with spatial awareness and assigning spatial coordinates to text lines within text-rich images. The second task focuses on producing structured text output in markdown format, capturing various styles and structures.

KOSMOS-2.5 manages both tasks under a single system, utilizing a shared Transformer architecture, task-specific prompts, and adaptable text representations. The model combines a vision encoder based on ViT (Vision Transformer) with a language decoder based on the Transformer architecture, connected through a resampler module.

The Performance and Potential of KOSMOS-2.5

KOSMOS-2.5 has been evaluated across two main tasks: end-to-end document-level text recognition and the generation of text from images in markdown format. Experimental results have shown its strong performance in understanding text-intensive image tasks. It also exhibits promising capabilities in scenarios involving few-shot and zero-shot learning, making it a versatile tool for real-world applications that deal with text-rich images.

Future Directions and Limitations

While KOSMOS-2.5 has shown promise, there are still limitations that offer valuable opportunities for future research. For example, the model currently does not support fine-grained control of document elements’ positions using natural language instructions, despite being pre-trained on inputs and outputs involving the spatial coordinates of text. Further development of model scaling capabilities is also an important direction in the broader research landscape.


With the rise of multimodal large language models like KOSMOS-2.5, AI capabilities have advanced in understanding visual content. This model’s ability to combine visual and textual information opens up new possibilities for generating content from text-rich images. While there are still limitations to address, the future looks promising for the development of AI models that can better comprehend and generate content from both text and visuals.

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